While doing the layout of a small magazine in Finnish, I’ve for a long time already been using unicode with LaTeX. It is just so much easier to write everything using unicode under Emacs, and then let LaTeX/TeX take care of the rest. Mostly, this even works quite well, but occasionally there are some surprising quirks. Like yesterday, when  I was doing the layout for the next issue to appear in a few weeks. There was an article about archaeological dating methods, and a few paragraphs dealt with radiocarbon dating, which is characterized by the calibration process required, and the uncertainty in the results, usually expressed with something like 225 AD ± 75 years. Now, of course LaTeX has a symbol for this, you can easily get is using


Now, the problem with this is, that in the middle of the text, using the face Garamond,with old style figures, there suddenly appears a mathematical symbol in TeX’s own math font, which is naturally quite beautiful, but does not really look that nice within the surrounding Garamond environment. Especially since the Garamond I’m using does include a glyph of its own for the plusminus symbol. Now, since I’m working with Unicode (or, to be more specific, text encoded as UTF-8), the natural choice was to find out, how to enter the corresponding symbol using Emacs (‘_’ + ‘+’ in the input-method latin-9-prefix).

Now, to make LaTeX handle UTF-8, I’ve been using the package inputenc like this:


I have read somewhere, the one actually should use the option “utf8” instead of “utf8x” as it is better supported or something, but in practice, “utf8” never works well, and alway, even for simple texts, calls for me to enter some kind of declarations for special characters and so on, so I’ve been sticking to “utf8x” this far. Now, one would expect, that using this setup, when LaTeX encounter the UTF-8 encoded ± in the text, it would find the corresponding glyph in the font and use that. But no, that is not what happens; instead, even though using ± in the middle of the text, LaTeX still finds the glyph in the TeX math font. Why?

Well, that’s because of this code in the file uni-0.def:


As we see, it forces the math mode on, and thus ensures, that this symbol is always taken from the math fonts, no matter whether the text font has it or not!

Now, a remedy: use the package textcomp, which has the command \textpm. That picks the right glyph from the right font! This is quite stupid though, because the whole point in using unicode is not having to use these LaTeX commands to arrive at special characters.

And it remains to be seen, whether the option “utf8” to inputenc would give better results in this case. Perhaps I’ll test that at some point.